Diabetes is a relatively new term widely used among the public in the current generation. Though the condition was there in earlier times, the incidence and awareness were very less compared to nowadays. But it has become popular among both urban and rural people in the recent past, considering it as one among the newly coined group called lifestyle diseases. Believed to be a companion of obesity, diabetes gained worldwide attention due to its chronic nature, irreversible nature, and severe complications. Diabetes is basically characterised by abnormally higher levels of blood sugar. There are basically two types. Type 1 is genetic or juvenile diabetes which is diagnosed in very small babies and children. Type 2 or adult diabetes starts in later years of life. In both these conditions, blood sugar levels are high compared with the normal range. The glucose metabolism gets deranged in total and affects the total functioning of organ systems if not controlled. This can lead to fatal complications.
Type 1 diabetes or juvenile diabetes is a comparatively severe condition and it is hereditary. Cells of the pancreas that produce insulin are affected in these children and insulin is not secreted in them. Experts consider this an autoimmune condition. Though type 1 diabetes is hereditary, both genetic and environmental factors have a role in the manifestation of the disease. In such children, insulin production is completely deranged and the only possible treatment is supplying the same from an external source for a lifetime. Type 2 diabetes or adult diabetes is started after the mid thirties in most cases. Risk factors for the same include genetic and lifestyle related factors. It is different from type 1 as type 2 people produce enough insulin in their system but their body cells are not able to use it effectively. Many of them produce even more quantities of insulin than needed. But the cells in their body can not receive and process it in a proper way. Muscle and fat tissues misbehave and function in a wrong way leading to the clinical manifestation of type 2 diabetes. In other words, type 2 diabetes is not a condition of insulin resistance.
Diagnosis and management of type 2 diabetes have important preventive aspects also. Blood sugar values are checked about food timings in routine blood examinations. But a one-time observation of the high value of blood sugar levels will not be taken as a diagnostic confirmation. Small factors may cause temporary fluctuations in blood sugar levels like deprived sleep or mental stress. So, a consistent reading is needed to diagnose the disease. There are more accurate tests like HbA1C for a precise diagnosis. In the beginning, only diet restrictions and lifestyle modifications are advised by most doctors. Stubborn higher values of high blood sugar despite such healthy measures need regular medication ( Ayurveda medicines ) and close watch. The disease diabetes existed in earlier times also but was diagnosed rarely, due to poor lab facility or ignorance. Now people are more concerned about health. The Internet provides everyone with the data they search for. They understand the need for prevention and the role of healthy living in the treatment of diabetes.
As diabetes is solely depending upon the calorific value and sugar content of the food you eat, then causing diabetic blood sugar levels, treatment of diabetes, and prevention of diabetes primarily needs a diabetes diet plan. Avoiding rice is not the only step to follow in the prevention or control of diabetes. It is true that rice is on the red list but considering the glycaemic index and all, all big cereals come on the red list. It includes rice and wheat. So having roti or bread daily will not save you. In diabetes, millets are life saviors. Ragi, barley, and Bajra should be included in daily diet like oatmeal. Almost all coloured vegetables are essential to maintain the balance of health but fruits are not a good way to go. Diabetic or pre-diabetic people should avoid sweet fruits like apples, bananas, or grapes. If compulsory go for guava, raw papaya, pomegranate, or blueberry. Raw jackfruit is considered a wonderful inclusion to reduce diabetic blood sugar levels. It is important to keep yourself hydrated but better to avoid items that cause increased moisture content or electrolyte imbalance in your body like milk, ice cream, or other substances high in fat and sugar. Time schedule, appetite, digestive power, and even mental state during eating are very important while discussing a diabetes diet plan. Diabetic people mostly feel uncomfortable when hungry. They show intense craving towards specific food items and sometimes it is impossible to control the desire to eat sweets.
While having medications for diabetes, there is a chance of hypoglycemia, where the diabetic blood sugar levels go to extremely low levels affecting the person very badly. This may lead to fainting or collapse of the person. This condition should be prevented or managed well, as it is as dangerous as high diabetic blood sugar levels. So, doctors suggest a diabetes diet plan along with medication as a treatment for diabetes. This diabetes diet plan includes a wholesome diet including cereals, pulses, fish, egg, meat, vegetables, fruits, nuts, and dairy products in moderate or needed quantity and frequency. A diabetic person is always advised to take fresh and warm food from home. It is best to take organic food items and better avoid canned food items and beverages. Food should be taken as small meals five or six times a day instead of heavy meals three times a day. This should be decided and managed considering the caloric need and digestive power of the person as it may lead to indigestion easily and eventually uncontrolled diabetes blood sugar levels. Preventive measures of diabetes also include following a regular healthy daily routine with proper sleep and food schedule. Suitable and regular exercise is a must include in the life of a diabetic person or a person who wants to prevent the disease.
Diabetes is a chronic disease with a group of different signs and symptoms, differently manifested in different people. It has common and characteristic symptoms like polyuria & polyphagia with excess sweating but the associated complaints may vary. Severe complications may develop if the diabetes blood sugar levels are not controlled and monitored well. It needs proper treatment for diabetes with a healthy diabetes diet plan after proper evaluation and professional advice.